Energy-saving lamps and LED Lamp can be classified as hazardous waste, because the loss of lead has been extremely excessive (respectively, $number/and 44MG/L, the safety standards are 5 and high content copper ($number 000mg/kg and 31600mg/kg, while safety standards are 2500), lead (CFL bulbs are 3860mg/kg, safety standards are 1000) and zinc (CFL bulbs are 34500mg/kg and safety standards are 5000 , while incandescent bulbs are not dangerous. Note that, in the results of the CFL bulb, the bulb mercury vapor was not considered, and the sample was not captured during preparation. Compared with incandescent bulbs, energy-saving lamps and LED lamps have a high potential for resource depletion and toxicity.
LED has the highest toxicity potential, LED Lamp mainly because of copper and aluminum, energy-saving lamps second, because the main metal is copper. These results differed from the results of potential toxicity indicators (synth potential indicator, TPI). TPI results show that the highest toxicity of energy-saving lamps may be mainly due to the zinc and copper, followed by copper-containing led. Incandescent bulbs contain aluminum, copper and nickel, but the amount is low and the toxicity potential is small. Energy-saving lamps have the highest human toxicity and ecological toxicity potential, led second. The human toxicity and eco-toxicity of energy-saving lamps are 2.5 times times and 1.3 times times higher than LEDs, and are 2 orders of magnitude of incandescent lamps. The relative contribution of each metal element to human toxicity and ecological toxicity was investigated, and zinc and copper were the highest, which accounted for 89-98% and 74-89% respectively.
In general, the potential environmental impact of energy-saving lamps and LEDs is 3-26 times higher and 2-3 times that of incandescent lamps respectively. The current energy-saving lamp and LED bulb technology need further development, reduce the overall resource consumption and toxicity potential. LED Lamp The comprehensive evaluation of the trade-off between income and cost argues that it is necessary to find alternative materials from the perspective of DfE life cycle, and to minimize the use of aluminum, copper, gold, lead, silver and zinc. Another approach is to develop longer-lived energy-saving lamps and LED bulbs that reduce the use of new resources and the amount of waste. LED Lamp In terms of resource recovery, some of the metal in the bulb is actually very limited. Therefore, there is an urgent need for appropriate waste management measures, or to reduce the content of toxic substances, metals or prolong the life of bulbs through innovative technologies.